Information Security Laws and Regulations 101

Non-compliance with information security laws and regulations can result in legal, financial, and reputational consequences. Read on to learn more!

April 24, 2023

As businesses continue to embrace digital transformation, the importance of information security has become increasingly critical. Cybersecurity frameworks and regulations have become essential tools for ensuring that organizations are adequately protecting their data and systems from cyber threats. These frameworks and regulations provide guidance on how businesses can assess and manage their cybersecurity risks, implement appropriate controls, and comply with legal and regulatory requirements.

With the evolving landscape of cybersecurity threats, businesses must stay stay abreast of the latest cybersecurity frameworks and regulations. Cybersecurity compliance not only helps organizations avoid costly data breaches and regulatory fines, but it also protects their reputation and customer trust. As Uncle Ben said to Peter Parker in Spider-Man, "With great power comes great responsibility." Similarly, with great amounts of data and technology comes a great responsibility to secure them.

Key Cybersecurity Regulations

Cybersecurity regulations are a critical aspect of the cybersecurity frameworks that organizations must comply with to protect themselves and their customers' data. Here are some of the key cybersecurity regulations that businesses should be aware of:

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

The GDPR is a European Union (EU) data protection regulation that came into effect on May 25, 2018. It intends to protect the privacy and personal data of EU residents by providing guidelines for data processing and handling. Non-compliance with GDPR can lead to hefty fines of up to 4% of a company's annual revenue or €20 million, whichever is higher.

  • Created: May 25, 2018
  • Intends to protect: the privacy and personal data of EU residents

California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)

The CCPA is a California state law that came into effect on January 1, 2020. It intends to protect the privacy and personal information of California residents by regulating how businesses collect, store, and share consumer data. The law applies to businesses that meet certain criteria and can lead to fines for non-compliance.

  • Created: January 1, 2020
  • Intends to protect: the privacy and personal information of California residents

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

HIPAA is a federal law that sets standards for the protection of personal health information (PHI). The law applies to healthcare providers, insurers, and their business associates. HIPAA covers the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of PHI and provides guidelines for its protection.

  • Created: 1996
  • Intends to protect: personal health information (PHI)

Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS)

PCI DSS is a set of cybersecurity standards created by major credit card companies to protect credit card data. The standards apply to all organizations that process, store, or transmit credit card information. Compliance with PCI DSS is mandatory for businesses that accept credit card payments.

  • Created: December 15, 2004
  • Intends to protect: credit card data

Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA)

FISMA is a federal law that requires federal agencies to establish and maintain information security programs. The law aims to provide a comprehensive framework for risk management and the protection of federal information and information systems. FISMA compliance is mandatory for all federal agencies and their contractors.

  • Created: December 2002
  • Intends to protect: federal information and information systems

Compliance with Information Security Laws and Regulations

Information security laws and regulations are a set of guidelines that dictate the appropriate measures and best practices that organizations must follow to protect themselves from cyber-attacks and data breaches. They are intended to safeguard confidential data and ensure the integrity of information systems. These regulations provide a comprehensive framework for risk management and the protection of sensitive data, including personal health information, credit card data, and consumer data.

The dangers of being Non-Compliant

Non-compliance can lead to serious risks and consequences for individuals and organizations alike. Failing to comply with regulations and standards can result in legal and financial penalties, increased cybersecurity risks, and reputational damage. Organizations that choose to ignore compliance requirements expose themselves to these dangers, potentially leading to significant financial losses and damage to their reputation. It's important to prioritize compliance to ensure the safety and security of both the organization and its stakeholders.

Legal & financial consequences

Non-compliance with legal and regulatory requirements can result in significant financial penalties and legal action. For example, failure to comply with GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) can lead to fines of up to 4% of global annual turnover or €20 million, whichever is greater. Similarly, failure to comply with anti-money laundering regulations can result in fines of up to $5 million or 10 years in prison.

Increased cybersecurity risks

Non-compliance can increase cybersecurity risks by leaving organizations vulnerable to cyberattacks and data breaches. Failure to comply with regulations like HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) or PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard) can result in sensitive data being compromised, potentially leading to financial losses and reputational damage.

Reputational damage in case of a breach

In case of a breach, non-compliance can result in significant reputational damage for an organization. This can lead to a loss of customer trust, negative publicity, and decreased business opportunities. For example, a data breach that compromises sensitive customer data can damage an organization's reputation and lead to customers taking their business elsewhere. This can have long-term negative effects on the organization's bottom line.

Consequences of non-compliance

As the saying goes, "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." And as you can see, in the world of information security, this couldn't be truer. Check out these five examples of what can happen when companies fail to take proactive measures to protect their data.

  1. Equifax Data Breach: In 2017, Equifax, one of the largest credit bureaus in the United States, suffered a massive data breach that exposed the personal information of over 147 million people. The breach occurred due to a failure to comply with basic cybersecurity regulations, resulting in a $700 million settlement with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and state regulators.
  2. British Airways Data Breach: In 2018, British Airways suffered a data breach that affected over 500,000 customers. The airline was fined £183 million ($228 million) by the UK Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) for violating the GDPR due to inadequate security measures and failing to comply with its obligations under the regulation.
  3. Target Data Breach: In 2013, Target suffered a data breach that affected over 40 million customers' credit and debit card information. Target agreed to pay $18.5 million to settle lawsuits filed by various state attorneys general due to a failure to comply with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) and inadequate security measures.
  4. Uber Data Breach: In 2016, Uber suffered a data breach that exposed the personal information of over 57 million users and 600,000 drivers. Uber failed to notify affected individuals and regulators about the breach, leading to a $148 million settlement with the FTC over the company's violation of the FISMA.
  5. Marriott International Data Breach: In 2018, Marriott International suffered a data breach that exposed the personal information of up to 500 million guests. Marriott was fined £18.4 million ($23.5 million) by the UK ICO for violating the GDPR and failing to take appropriate measures to protect personal data, leading to the massive data breach.

The Role of Device Management in Compliance

Effective device management plays a crucial role in ensuring compliance with information security laws and regulations. Device management provides organizations with the ability to control and monitor access to sensitive data, track devices, and enforce policies that are necessary to maintain a secure environment. By understanding the impact of device management on compliance efforts, organizations can effectively leverage technology to support their compliance initiatives.

Device management and security can support compliance with information security laws and regulations by providing real-time monitoring and control of devices. Through centralized device management, organizations can ensure that all devices are up-to-date with the latest security patches, enforce password policies, and track device usage. This helps organizations prevent data breaches and maintain compliance with regulations such as HIPAA, PCI DSS, and GDPR.

How device management can support compliance with information security laws and regulations

Real-life examples of successful device management that helped stay compliant with information security laws and regulations:

  1. Kaiser Permanente: In order to adhere to HIPAA regulations, the healthcare provider established device management policies. Kaiser Permanente utilized mobile device management software to regulate access to sensitive patient information, implement password policies, and remotely erase devices in the event of loss or theft.
  2. Hilton Worldwide: To comply with PCI DSS regulations, the hotel chain put in place a device management policy. Hilton Worldwide relied on mobile device management software to oversee and restrict access to payment card data, enforce security protocols, and remotely erase devices if they were lost or stolen.
  3. Deloitte: To meet GDPR, the professional services company implemented device management policies. Deloitte employed mobile device management software to monitor and regulate access to personal data, enforce password policies, and remotely erase devices in case of loss or theft.
Some health organizations employ Mobile Device Management (MDM) solutions to meet GDPR requirements.

How to comply with multiple cybersecurity regulations

Most organizations, Managed Service Providers (MSPs), and IT Professionals face the challenge of complying with multiple cybersecurity regulations to ensure their clients' information systems and data are secure. It is not an easy task to navigate through different regulations and requirements, but it is crucial to maintain compliance to avoid penalties and reputational damage. In this article, we will discuss the necessary steps MSPs and IT professionals can take to comply with multiple cybersecurity regulations.

Here are 3 of the most known cybersecurity regulations and the key steps to comply with them:


The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy for all individuals within the European Union and the European Economic Area. It came into effect on May 25, 2018. The GDPR imposes strict rules on how organizations handle the personal data of EU citizens, including how it is collected, processed, stored, and deleted. Organizations that fail to comply with the GDPR may face significant fines and reputational damage.

Some of the key steps to comply with the GDPR are:

  1. Identify the personal data you process and why you process it.
  2. Obtain explicit consent from individuals to collect and use their data.
  3. Appoint a Data Protection Officer (DPO) if necessary.
  4. Implement appropriate security measures to protect personal data.
  5. Ensure that data processors comply with the GDPR.
  6. Conduct Data Protection Impact Assessments (DPIAs) for high-risk processing activities.
  7. Implement procedures for responding to data breaches.
  8. Educate employees on GDPR compliance.
  9. Maintain detailed records of data processing activities.
  10. Cooperate with data protection authorities in the event of an investigation or audit.


HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) sets the standard for sensitive patient data protection in the healthcare industry. Compliance with HIPAA is critical for healthcare providers to protect patient's privacy and avoid costly fines.

Some of the key steps to comply with HIPAA are:

  1. Implementing administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to protect patient information.
  2. Appointing a HIPAA privacy officer to oversee compliance.
  3. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify potential vulnerabilities and areas for improvement.
  4. Developing and implementing policies and procedures for data security and breach notification.
  5. Providing ongoing staff training on HIPAA regulations and security best practices.
  6. Establishing a contingency plan for responding to security incidents or breaches.
  7. Ensuring that business associates, such as vendors or contractors, are also HIPAA compliant.


PCI DSS is a set of standards established to enhance payment account data security. The PCI DSS standards are a set of requirements for businesses that process payments from major credit cards such as Visa, MasterCard, Discover, and American Express. Compliance with PCI DSS is mandatory for any organization that accepts or processes credit card payments.

Some of the key steps to comply with PCI DSS are:

  1. Build and maintain a secure network.
  2. Protect cardholder data.
  3. Maintain a vulnerability management program.
  4. Implement strong access control measures.
  5. Regularly monitor and test networks.
  6. Maintain an information security policy.


The importance of cybersecurity frameworks and regulations cannot be overstated. Organizations must maintain cybersecurity vigilance to ensure they comply with evolving regulations and mitigate cybersecurity threats. Non-compliance can result in significant financial and reputational damage, as well as legal consequences.

As technology continues to advance, the need for cybersecurity vigilance will only increase. Organizations must stay up-to-date with evolving frameworks and regulations, and continuously assess their cybersecurity posture to identify areas that need improvement. By taking proactive measures to maintain cybersecurity compliance, organizations can reduce the risk of cyberattacks and safeguard their valuable assets.

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